idar is an acronym for LIght Detection And Ranging, a technique similar in principle to Sonar
and Radar to determine ranging, or the measurement of distance by time domain reflections. Lidar uses a (usually pulsed)
beam source while measuring the round-trip time and intensity of reflected energy. When there is no 'solid' target, there is
still a small portion of the beam that is reflected by atmospheric constituents along the line of sight (backscatter.)
This measurement technique can infer several characteristics of the target and also of the intervening atmosphere.
The processed return signal or echo can be used to develop 2 and 3 dimensional plots, and has numerous applied uses:
(See also Bibliography References, below)
- Backscatter Lidar (e.g our lidar data of aerosol vertical concentration versus time in the earth's atmosphere.)
- Raman Lidar (Light scattering by molecules where the wavelength is changed by the scattering. The change in wavelength
depends on the temperature of the air and the type of molecule from which the scattering takes place. This can be used, for
example, to determine the water vapor concentration in the upper atmosphere.)
- Cirrus Cloud Lidar (e.g. The depolarization ratio of backscattered light is being used to study the structure and dynamics
of cirrus clouds.)
- DIAL Lidar (DIfferential Absorbtion Lidar using two wavelengths to determine atmospheric component
concentrations by subtraction, e.g ozone.)
- Doppler Lidar (e.g. Velocity measurement and display of area turbulent winds.)
- Ranging Lidar (Similar to Radar, e.g. vertical mapping of the the New York City World Trade Center Twin Towers 9/11 site.)
CCNY Laboratory Lidar System Description:
Q-switched Coherent 40-100 Nd-YAG with variable output power
up to 400 mJ. This system has three channels with wavelengths at
1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. Repetition rate of 50 Hz with 6 ns
pulse duration; 0.7 mrad beam divergence. Beam is on axis to the
telescope, directed by three dichroic mirrors. (See image below.)
Q-switched Spectra-Physics Quanta Ray Pro230 Nd-YAG with
variable output power up to 475 mJ @ 532 nm, 950 mJ @ 1064 nm
and 300 mJ @ 355 nm. This system currently has five channels
with wavelengths at 1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, including a Raman channel
at 407 nm for water with a second Raman channel at 387 for nitrogen.
Repetition rate of 30 Hz with 1-2 ns pulse duration @ 532 nm;
<0.5 mrad beam divergence. Beam is on axis to the telescope,
directed by three dichroic mirrors. A fifth channel is currently being
20 inch Newtonian Reflector, F3.5
APD (silicon enhanced avalanche photodiode) for the
1064 nm (infrared) channel. PMT (Hammamatsu
for the 532 nm (green), 386 nm (Raman) and 355 nm (UV) channels.
Lidar Transient Recorder TR 40-160 (LICEL)
with 12-bit, 40 MHz A/D converter for signals between 10 MHz and 200 MHz, 64-level fast
discriminator for signals in the high frequency domain above 200 MHz.
500 m to 15 km
Aquisition system is configured by using the TR
40-160 Transient Recorder modules for all channels in a five-channel rack comprising power supplies and interface ports to a PC
computer equipped with a National Instruments digital I/O card, DIO-32F. Each channel can be configured and controlled
separately by the host computer. Typically, return signals from 3000 pulses are averaged, then background subtracted for
each time segment.
A vertical radar emitter and
antenna continually search for the presence of aircraft and provide a
failsafe interlock for the beam while the laser is in operation.
On detection of aircraft, the laser beam is automatically disabled and
lidar data aquisition halted. When the airspace is again clear,
the system can be reset by the operator after observer confirmation and
data collection will automatically resume.
irborne particulate matter has been a major interest to atmospheric
scientists. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties becomes importance because of studies
correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects: an
increase in mortality and respiratory problems; pulmonary function
decreases with increase in ambient particle mass concentrations. The
small aerosol component, PM , is of most concern to human health
because it can be easily inhaled deep into the lungs. Along with health
issues, aerosol distributions have significant implications for natural
environmental aesthetics and climatic change conditions. Visual range
compared to a clean atmosphere is typically 50-67 % in the western U.S.
and 20 % in eastern U.S. Combustion products from transportation and
power sources produce most of the nucleation centers which grow to
aerosol sizes that change the visibility and radiative flux at the
Earth's surface by optical scattering.
Unlike radar, where the backscatter echo is due mainly to the target, the lidar backscatter echo
intensity depends not only on the backscatter target, but also on the attenuation
of the intervening gasses and aerosols. The molecular atmosphere (e.g. O2, N2, Ar)
contributes to backscatter, as well does other small molecular gasses (e.g. the oxides of nitrogen and carbon
dioxide.) Therefore, in order to isolate the aerosol contribution, suitable preprocessing of the lidar signal
must be performed to eliminate these molecular components. Furthermore, since the aerosol signal depends on
both the backscatter and extinction properties of the aerosol, assumptions on the ratio of the extinction
to backscatter ratio must be made based on aerosol climatology. Finally, since absolute radiometric calibration
is very difficult, it is important to calibrate the backscatter signal. This calibration is almost always
performed by probing the atmosphere at sufficiently high altitudes where the signal is dominated by the molecular
component which can be calibrated given supplemental temperature and pressure profiles. Further reference
information and details can be found in the links given below.
CCNY Backscatter Lidar Image Library:
A library display tool by date,
(1064, 532 and 355 nm). The most recent image set is displayed on loading. This is a public database.
CCNY Backscatter Lidar Image Search Tool:
A visual index display tool
containing prior images of backscatter data at 1064 nm. The most recent image is displayed on loading. This is a public database.
CCNY Lidar Data Archive:
An archive of recent raw data. These files are
compressed using RAR (WinRAR) and may be uncompressed using the same tool available for all major
computing platforms. If you are unable to uncompress these data on your computer, a tool is available for downloading
here. This is a password protected database.
Recent CCNY Lidar Images:
You may click on these links to view samples of recent CCNY Backscatter Lidar images taken at the wavelengths of
From these data and correlation with others, the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is determined, viewed
(Click again to hide.)
References, Presentations and Papers:
You may click on topics below to expand list. (Click again to hide.)
• CCNY Lidar Presentations and Papers
The first two papers (to be submitted to Optics Express) describe the remarkable influence that
inter and intra continental plumes can have on local air quality through mixing mechanisms. The complete analysis
is only made possible by integrating multiple satellite platform measurements with a wide variety of ground based
active and passive remote sensing instruments utilized at The City College of New York (CCNY). The first paper
focuses on smoke plumes from wild fires while the second paper discusses dessert dust plume from Asia.
Leona Charles, Barry Gross, Fred Moshary,
Yonghua Wua, Viviana Vladutescua, Sam Ahmed, "Atmospheric transport of Smoke
Particulates and its interaction with the Planetary Boundary Layer as observed by multi-wavelength Lidar
and supporting instrumentation", Optical Remote Sensing Lab,
The City College of New York, NY 10031 and SBIRS Program, Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Leona Charles, Barry Gross, Fred Moshary,
Yonghua Wua, Viviana Vladutescua, Sam Ahmed, "Regional Impact of
Inter-Continental Aerosol Transport", Optical Remote Sensing Lab,
The City College of New York, NY 10031 and SBIRS Program, Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Herman, B. R., Barry Gross, Fred Moshary,
and Samir Ahmed, "Ensemble Markov chain Monte Carlo method for assessing uncertainties
of aerosol properties from multiwavelength lidar measurements", Department
of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, NY 10031 (2008).
Herman, B. R., Barry Gross, Fred Moshary,
and Samir Ahmed, "Bayesian assessment of uncertainty in aerosol size
distributions and index of refraction retrieved from multiwavelength lidar
measurements", Department of Electrical Engineering, Optical Remote Sensing
Laboratory, City College of the City University of New York, NY 10031 (2008).
Gedzelman, S. D., H. Y. Glickman, B. M. Gross,
E. E. Hindman, K. Kong, S. Mahani and F. Moshary, "Mesoscale Weather Features
in NYC Revealed by CCNY Lidar", NOAA-CREST Center, The City College of New York,
NY 10031 (2006).
B. R., B. M. Gross, F. Moshary and S. Ahmed, "Extension of the graphical technique
for estimation of particle size distribution parameters for the consistent intercomparison of diverse sets of multiwavelength
lidar derived optical coefficients", Appl. Opt., 44, 30 pp6462
Shuki Chaw, Y. Wu, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary and
S. Ahmed, "Improvement of optical depth relations to PM2.5 concentrations using lidar
derived PBL Heights", Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory City College of New
York, New York, NY, USA 10031.
Yonghua Wu, S. Chaw, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary
and S. Ahmed, "Measurement of Thin Cloud Optical Properties Using a Combined Mie-Raman
LIDAR Heights", NOAA-CREST, The City College of New York, New York, NY
Leona Charles, M. M. Oo, B. Herman, B. M.
Gross, F. Moshary and S. Ahmed, "Improving CALIPSO LIDAR Retrievals of Surface Level
Backscatter as a Proxy for PM2.5 using MODIS Reflectance Constraints", Optical
Remote Sensing Laboratory City College of New York, New York, NY, USA 10031.
Jia-Yeong Ku, C. Hogrefe, G. Sistla and S. Chaw,
L. Charles and B. M. Gross, "Use of lidar backscatter to determine the PBL heights in
New York City, NY", No reference given.
Leona Charles, S. Chaw, F. Moshary, B. M. Gross, S.
Gedzelman and S. Ahmed, "Application of CCNY Lidar and ceilometers to the study of
Aerosol Transport and PM2.5 monitoring", Abstract of a presentation to be given
at the Third Symposium on LIDAR Atmospheric Applications, 16-18 Jan 2007.
Yasser Y. Hassebo, B. M. Gross, M. M. Oo, F. Moshary
and S. Ahmed, "Polarization discrimination technique to maximize LIDAR signal-to-noise
ratio for daylight operations", Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory - The City
College of the City University of New York Convent Ave. & 140 St., New York, NY 10031, USA.
P. S. and R. J. Sika, "Lidar", University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. This reference, covering history, theory and practice, should be your
Bohren, C. F. and D. R. Huffman , "Absorption and Scattering of
Light by Small Particles, "Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1983.
J. D., "Stable analytical inversion
solution for processing lidar returns,'' Appl. Opt., 20 (2), pp221 (1981).
Philip B., Swissler,
Thomas J., and McCormick, M. Patrick, "Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of
Lidar Aerosol Measurements," Appl. Opt., 18, 3783-3797 (1979).
F. G., "Analysis of Atmospheric Lidar
Observations," Appl Opt., 23 (5), 652-653 (1983).
V. et. al., "Aerosol Lidar
Intercomparison in the Framework of the EARLINET Project 1. Instruments," Appl.
Opt., 43 (4), 961-976 (2004).
C. et. al., "Aerosol Lidar
Intercomparison in the Framework of the EARLINET Project 2. Aerosol Backscatter Algorithms," Appl. Opt., 43 (4), 977-989 (2004).
Bibliography by Topic:
You may click on topics below to expand list. (Click again to hide.) Teaching references are provided for
educational use to students and instructional staff at CCNY only.
R. McGann, T. Wagener, J. Abbiss, and A. Smart, "Comparative
Optical Measurements of Airspeed and Aerosols on a DC-8 Aircraft",
P. Vaattovaara, M. Vesterinen, K. Hämeri, and A. Laaksonen, "A
novel tandem differential mobility analyzer with organic vapor treatment of aerosol particles",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 1, 51-60, 2001.
and M. Kulmala, "Nucleation events in the continental boundary
layer: Influence of physical and meteorological parameters",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 1-16, 2002.
Y. J. Yoon
and P. Brimblecombe, "Modelling the contribution of sea salt
and dimethyl sulfide derived aerosol to marine CCN",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 17-30, 2002.
M. Kulmala, F. Stratmann, and K. Hämeri, "Field measurements
of hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of nucleation mode particles",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 55-66, 2002.
D. A. Knopf,
T. Koop, B. P. Luo, U. G.Weers, and T. Peter, "Homogeneous
nucleation of NAD and NAT in liquid stratospheric aerosols: insufficient to explain denitrification",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 207-214, 2002.
M. Ammann, L. Gutzwiller, B. Ervens, and C. George, "The impact
of multiphase reactions of NO2 with aromatics: a modelling approach",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 215-226, 2002.
S. K. Meilinger,
B. Kärcher, and T. Peter, "Suppression of chlorine activation
on aviation-produced volatile particles",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 307-312, 2002.
A. T. J. de Laat,
"On the origin of tropospheric O3 over the Indian Ocean during
the winter monsoon: African biomass burning vs. stratosphere-troposphere exchange",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 325-341, 2002.
M. G. Schultz,
"On the use of ATSR fire count data to estimate the seasonal
and interannual variability of vegetation fire emissions",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 387-395, 2002.
C. Moulin, S. Belviso, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, E. Cosme, R. von Kuhlmann, M. G. Lawrence,
M. Pham6, M. S. Reddy, J. Sciare, and C. Venkataraman, "DMS
atmospheric concentrations and sulphate aerosol indirect radiative forcing: a sensitivity study
to the DMS source representation and oxidation",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 49-65, 2003.
"Estimated variability of below-cloud aerosol removal by
rainfall for observed aerosol size distributions",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 131-143, 2003.
S. M. Saunders,
M. E. Jenkin, R. G. Derwent, and M. J. Pilling, "Protocol for
the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A): tropospheric
degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 161-180, 2003.
M. E. Jenkin,
S. M. Saunders, V. Wagner, and M. J. Pilling, "Protocol for
the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part B): tropospheric
degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 181-193, 2003.
R. von Glaso
M. G. Lawrence, R. Sander, and P. J. Crutzen, "Modeling
the chemical effects of ship exhaust in the cloud-free marine boundary layer",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 233-250, 2003.
K. E. J. Lehtinen
and M. Kulmala, "PA model for particle formation and growth
in the atmosphere with molecular resolution in size",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 251-257, 2003.
H. Bardouki, C. Moulin, and N. Mihalopoulos, "Aerosol
sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern
Mediterranean Sea during summertime",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 291-302, 2003.
J. Kaiser, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, "The isotopic
fingerprint of the pre-industrial and the anthropogenic N2O source",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 315-323, 2003.
W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, M.Wilck, I. J. Ackermann, and H. Berresheim, "Particle
formation at a continental background site: comparison of model results with observations",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 347-359, 2003.
N. Spichtinger, A. Stohl, G. Held, S. Beirle, T.Wagner, B. Jähne, and U. Platt, "Intercontinental
transport of nitrogen oxide pollution plumes",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 387-393, 2003.
C. Robles González,
M. Schaap, G. de Leeuw, P. J. H. Builtjes, and M. van Loon, "Spatial
variation of aerosol properties over Europe derived from satellite observations and comparison with model calculations",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 521-533, 2003.
S. Romakkaniemi, and A. Laaksonen, "On the formation of
radiation fogs under heavily polluted conditions",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 581-589, 2003.
I. B. Konovalov,
"Nonlinear relationships between atmospheric aerosol and its
gaseous precursors: Analysis of long-term air quality monitoring data by means of neural networks",
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 607-621, 2003.
• Polarization Lidar
Gian Paolo Gobbi,
"Polarization lidar returns from aerosols
and thin clouds: a framework for the analysis",
Appl. Opt., 37 (24), 5505-5508, 2001.
R. J. Allen and C. M. R. Plaft
"Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observations",
Appl. Opt., 16 (12), 3193-3199, 1972.
Ulla Wandinger, A. Ansmann, and C. Weitkamp
"Atmospheric Raman depolarization-ratio measurements",
Appl. Opt., 33 (24), 5671-5673, 1994.
Hiroshi Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, and M. Fujiwara
"Calibration method for the lidar-observed
stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles",
Appl. Opt., 40 (36), 6587-6595, 2001.
Wei-Nai Chen, Chih-Wei Chiang, and Jan-Bai Nee
"Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds",
Appl. Opt., 41 (30), 6470-6476, 2002.
Susanne Reichert and J. Reichardt
"Effect of multiple scattering on depolarization
measurements with spaceborne lidars",
Appl. Opt., 42 (18), 3620-3633, 2003.
• Doppler Lidar
K. G. Bartlett and C. Y. She
measurement of wind speed using a dual beam backscatter laser Doppler velocimeter", Appl. Opt., 15 (8), 1980-1983, 1976.
Freeman F. Hall, Jr., R. Huffaker,
R. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. Lawrence, M. Post, R. Richter, and B. Weber
measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar", Appl. Opt., 23 (15), 2503-2506, 1984.
Victor A. Banakh, Igor
Smalikho, F. Köpp, and C. Werner,
"Representativeness of wind measurements
with a cw Doppler lidar in the atmospheric boundary layer", Appl. Opt., 34 (12), 2503-2506, 1985.
Jeffry Rothermel, D.
Chambers, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, D. Bowdle, and W. Jones,
"Signal processing and calibration of
continuous-wave focused CO2 Doppler lidars for atmospheric backscatter measurement", Appl. Opt., 35 (12), 2083-2095, 1995.
E. Galletti, E.
Stucchi, D. V. Willetts, and M. R. Harris,
"Transverse-mode selection in apertured super-Gaussian resonators:
an experimental and numerical investigation for a pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar transmitter", Appl. Opt., 36 (6), 1269-1277, 1997.
Matthew J. McGill, W.
Skinner, and T. Irgang,
"Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar", Appl. Opt., 36 (9), 1928-1939, 1997.
Barry J. Rye and R.
"Detection techniques for validating Doppler estimates in heterodyne lidar", Appl. Opt., 36 (9), 1940-1951, 1997.
Rod Frehlich, S. Hannon, and S. Henderson,
"Coherent Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the weak signal regime", Appl. Opt., 36 (15), 3491-3499, 1997.
C. Laurence Korb, B.
Gentry, and S. Xingfu Li,
"Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution", Appl. Opt., 36 (24), 5976-5983, 1997.
C. Laurence Korb, B.
Gentry, S. Xingfu Li, and C. Flesia,
"Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement", Appl. Opt., 37 (15), 3097-3104, 1998.
Jack A. McKay,
"Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique", Appl. Opt., 37 (27), 6487-6493, 1998.
Brian T. Lottman and Rod G. Frehlich,
"Extracting vertical winds from simulated
clouds with ground-based coherent Doppler lidar", Appl. Opt., 37 (36), 8297-8305, 1998.
Cristina Flesia and C. Korb,
"Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement", Appl. Opt., 38 (3), 432-440, 1999.
Claude Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog,
"Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric
measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration", Appl. Opt., 38 (12), 2242-2431, 1999.
C. Laurence Korb, B. Gentry, S. Xingfu Li, and C. Flesia,
"Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement", Appl. Opt., 38 (12), 3097-3104, 1999.
Philippe Drobinski, P. Flamant, and P. Salamitou,
"Spectral diversity technique for heterodyne Doppler lidar that uses hard target returns", Appl. Opt., 39 (3), 376-385, 2000.
Zhi-Shen Liu, Dong Wu, Jin-Tao Liu, Kai-Lin Zhang, Wei-Biao Chen, Xiao-Quan Song,
Johnathan W. Hair, and Chiao-Yao She,
"Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh
backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter", Appl. Opt., 41 (33), 7079-7086, 2002.
David M. Tratt, R. Menzies, M. Chiao, D. Cutten, J. Rothermel,
R. Hardesty, J. Howell, and S. Durden,
"Airborne Doppler lidar investigation of the wind-modulated sea-surface angular retroreflectance signature", Appl. Opt., 41 (33), 6941-6949, 2002.
• Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL)
and I. Balin, R. Jimenez, P. Ristori, S. Perego, F. Kirchner, V. Simeonov,
B. Calpini, H. van den Bergh, "An investigation of ozone and planetary boundary layer
dynamics over the complex topography of Grenoble combining measurements and modeling", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 549-562, 2003.
and M. Kulmala, "The part of the solar spectrum with the highest influence on the
formation of SOA in the continental boundary layer", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 375-386, 2002.
J. E. Williams,
F. J. Dentmer, and A. R. van den Bergh, "The influence of cloud chemistry on
HOx and NOx in the moderately poluted marine boundary layer: a 1-D modelling study", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 39-54, 2002.
, M. Furger, S. Nyeki, 2, M. Steinbacher, B. Neininger, S. F. J. deWekker,
J. Dommen, N. Spichtinger, A. Stohl, and A. S. H. Prevot, "Quantification of
topographic venting of boundary layer air to the free troposphere", "Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 497, 2002.
, M. Dal Maso, M. Boy, H. Aufmhoff, J. Hoffmann, T. Schuck, W. Birmili, M. Hanke,
J. Uecker, F. Arnold, and M. Kulmala, "The contribution of sulphuric acid to atmospheric
particle formation and growth: a comparison between boundary layers in Northern and Central Europe", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1773, 2005.
, J. C. Lin, J.W. Munger, and S. C.Wofsy, "What can tracer observations in the
continental boundary layer tell us about surface-atmosphere fluxes?", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 539, 2006.
, J. A. Shillito, H. Coe, and J. M. C. Plane, "Measurements and modelling
of I2, IO, OIO, BrO and NO3 in the mid-latitude marine
boundary layer", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1513-1528, 2006.
, P. Guyon, P. Artaxo, O. Schmid, G. P. Frank, L. V. Rizzo, O. L. Mayol-Bracero,
L. V. Gatti, M. O. Andreae, "Optical and physical properties of aerosols in the
boundary layer and free troposphere over the Amazon Basin during the biomass burning season", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2911-2925, 2006.
, K. Teinila, R. Hillamo, V.-M. Kerminen, S. Saarikoski, M. Aurela, J. Viidanoja,
J. Paatero, I. K. Koponen, and M. Kulmala, "Chemical composition of boundary layer
aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean and at an Antarctic site", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3407-3421, 2006.
R. von Glasow
, "Importance of the surface reaction OH+ Cl-
on sea salt aerosol for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer - a model study", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3571-3581, 2006.
, "Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective
boundary layer - first results from a feasibility study Part II: Meteorological characterisation", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4215-4230, 2006.
, "Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective
boundary layer - first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation
of simulation results from a columnar modelling study", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4253-4274, 2006.
X. H. Yao
, N. T. Lau, M. Fang, and C. K. Chan, "On the time-averaging of ultrafine particle number size spectra in
vehicular plumes", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4801-4807, 2006.
Kusiel S. Shifrin
and I. Zolotov, "Information content of the spectral
transmittance of the marine atmospheric boundary layer", Appl. Opt., 35 (24), 4835-4842, 1996.
, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, and P. Flamant, "Urban boundary-layer height determination
from lidar measurements over the Paris area", Appl.
Opt., 38 (6), 945-954, 1999.
John E. Barnes
, S. Bronner, R. Beck, and N. Parikh, "Boundary layer scattering measurements with a
charge-coupled device camera lidar", Appl.
Opt., 42 (15), 2647-2652, 2003.
and Klaus Schäfer, "Remote sensing methods to investigate boundary-layer
structures relevant to air pollution in cities", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:377-385.
W. J. Massman
and J. Tuovinen, "An analysis and implications of alternative methods of
deriving the density (WPL) terms for eddy covariance flux measurements", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:221-227.
and G. Katul, "Two-dimensional scalar spectra in the deeper layers
of a dense and uniform model canopy", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:267-281.
and J. Salmond, "Methodological considerations regarding
the measurement of turbulent fluxes in the urban roughness sublayer: the role of scintillometery", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:351-375.
and O. Panferov, "Modification of two-equation models to account
for planet drag", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:229-266.
, C. Aguirre, M. Ayrault and S. Simoëns, "Large-eddy simulation of the dispersion of
solid particles in a turbulent boundary layer", Boundary-Layer Meteorol (2006) 121:283-311.
• Raman Lidar
Schneider, and R. Eixmann, ""Three
years of routine Raman lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosols: Backscattering, extinction, and residual layer
height", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 313-323, 2002.
D. Gerber, I. Balin, D. G. Feist, N. Kämpfer, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini and H. van den Bergh, "Ground-based water vapour soundings by microwave radiometry and Raman lidar on Jungfraujoch
(Swiss Alps)", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2171-2179, 2004.
A. Papayannis, D. Balis, V. Amiridis, G. Chourdakis, G. Tsaknakis, C. Zerefos, A. D. A. Castanho,
S. Nickovic, S. Kazadzis, and J. Grabowski6, " Measurements of Saharan dust
aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean using elastic backscatter-Raman lidar, spectrophotometric and satellite observations
in the frame of the EARLINET project," Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2065-2079, 2005.
D. Gerber, I. Balin, D. G. Feist, N. Kämpfer, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini and H. van den Bergh, Ground-based water vapour soundings by microwave radiometry and Raman lidar on Jungfraujoch
(Swiss Alps)", Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, 4833-4856, 2003.
ORSL/CCNY/CUNY disclaim liability of any kind whatsoever, including, without limitation, liability for quality,
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose arising out of the use or inability to use the data presented herein.
Program Code Copyright © Thomas Legbandt 2010 - 2016